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Our approach to mRNA Vaccines

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    Our mRNA

    Our mRNA

    Moderna’s mRNA products are designed for high protein expression, beginning with the design of the mRNA itself and including the process used to make the final material.

    • Our mRNA is made with modified chemistry, replacing the uridine nucleoside found in mammalian mRNA with N1-methylpseudouridine (N1mψ), naturally found in transfer RNA (tRNA), to evade the host innate immune response mechanisms.

    • The open reading frame (ORF) of the mRNA is codon optimized in our Design Studio using artificial intelligence to improve translational efficiency.

    • Our 5’ and 3’ UTR sequences, cap1, and polyA tail are engineered to improve stability and translational efficiency of the mRNA.

    • The mRNA is manufactured using a process specifically designed for vaccine products, minimizing process and product-related impurities such as double-stranded RNA and aborted transcripts.

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    Our Formulated mRNA

    Our Formulated mRNA

    We encapsulate our mRNA in a hydrophobic lipid nanoparticle (LNP) to protect the mRNA from endogenous mRNAse and naturally transport the mRNA to the cell cytoplasm.

    • Our prophylactic LNPs contain ionizable, structural, helper and polyethylene glycol lipids, and are mixed with mRNA in a controlled environment.

    • The LNP process is engineered to provide consistent biophysical attributes, which are measured as part of an extensive characterization panel.

    • These attributes include particle size and polydispersity, mRNA encapsulation, mRNA purity, pH, osmolality, and endotoxin. Research-grade LNPs are stored in a Tris buffer system at physiological pH (7.5) with sucrose added as a cryoprotectant.

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    Experimental Standards

    Experimental Standards

    Ready to order standards are available for reporter constructs to facilitate assay development.

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